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A boiler is a closed vessel in which drinking water or other liquid is heated. The fluid will not always boil. (In THE UNITED STATES, the word "furnace" is generally used if the reason is never to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various procedures or heating system applications,[1 - [2 - including drinking water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power era, cooking food, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not used in wetted parts of boilers credited to corrosion and stress corrosion breaking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless steel is often used in superheater sections that won't come in contact with boiling drinking water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the Western "Pressure Equipment Directive" for creation of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is more fabricated in smaller size boilers easily. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (especially for steam locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead.

For much of the Victorian "age group of vapor", the only material used for boilermaking was the best grade of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was often obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), observed for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice transferred towards the utilization of steel instead, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be mentioned, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode far slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less vunerable to localized stress-corrosion and pitting. This makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers much superior to those of welded metal boilers.

Cast iron might be utilized for the heating vessel of home water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is to create warm water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
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Energy
The foundation of heating for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric vapor boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for producing steam, either straight (BWR) or, generally, in specialised high temperature exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). Warmth recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other procedures such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two solutions to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Immediate method -direct approach to boiler efficiency test is more useful or even more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor circulation Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of feed water in kcal/kg q= level of gas use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like family pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a following parameter like

Ultimate analysis of gas (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gas in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a fire heats a partially filled water pot from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure vapor, hardly above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn off wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was very low.
Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early forerunner or type of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, drinking water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the vapor (vapor space). This is the kind of boiler used in almost all steam locomotives. Heat source is in the furnace or firebox that needs to be held completely surrounded by the water in order to keep up the temperatures of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the road of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by causing the gases reverse direction through another parallel pipe or a bundle of multiple tubes (two-pass or come back flue boiler); additionally the gases may be studied along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel stretches from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a lot of money of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating surface compared to a single pipe and further enhances heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of vapor production usually, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers burn solid fuels mostly, but are readily adjustable to people of the liquid or gas variety.

Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this type, tubes filled up with drinking water are arranged inside a furnace in a true number of possible configurations. Water tubes connect large drums Often, the lower ones containing water and the top ones water and steam; in other instances, such as a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally gives high steam production rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water pipe boilers can be made to exploit any temperature source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure drinking water/steam is included within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler in which tubes are close jointly and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube steam generator where the pipe is permanently filled up with water. Super fast boiler, the tube is held so hot that the water feed is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers experienced some use in cars in the 19th century and this use continued into the early 20th century. .

1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been combined in the following manner: the firebox includes an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases pass through a typical firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have fulfilled with little success far away.
Sectional boiler. Inside a solid iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" water is contained inside solid iron areas.[citation needed - These sections are assembled on site to make the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Society of Mechanical Technicians (ASME) develop specifications and regulation rules. For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with basic safety, security and design standards.[5 -

Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle steel shells can rupture, while badly welded or riveted seams could start, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is changed into vapor it expands to over 1,000 times its original quantity and travels down vapor pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, vapor is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but with no right boiler give food to water treatment, a steam-raising seed are affected from scale formation and corrosion. At best, this increases energy costs and can result in poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also squirt scalding-hot steam and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who fill the coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to use factories could demolish entire buildings.[6 -

A boiler which has a loss of feed drinking water and it is permitted to boil dry can be hugely dangerous. If nourish water is then sent into the clear boiler, the small cascade of inbound drinking water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metallic shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be managed even by protection steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor source lines that is bigger than the make-up water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a strategy to help prevent this problem from happening, and thereby reduce their insurance claims.[7 - [8 -

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be utilized at saturation temperature; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated vapor boilers vaporize water and then further heat the steam in a superheater. This provides vapor at higher heat, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating seed because the bigger steam heat range takes a higher flue gas exhaust heat range.[citation needed - There are several ways to circumvent this issue, by giving an economizer that heats the give food to drinking water typically, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust route, or both. You will find benefits to superheated steam that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilization: increases in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There could be useful limitations in using wet vapor also, as entrained condensation droplets will harm turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly.

Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The heat in this area is normally between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are glowing type; that is, they absorb high temperature by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing warmth from a fluid. Some are a combination of the two types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the temperature of the vapor in the superheater increases, the pressure of the vapor does not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9 - Virtually all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent harm to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a power plant.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of electric power frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the fluid is liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid neither. There is absolutely no era of vapor bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point of which vapor bubbles can form. As the liquid expands through the turbine stages, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which changes the electrical generator from which power is eventually extracted. The liquid at that point may be considered a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets as it goes by in to the condenser. This results in less fuel use and therefore less greenhouse gas production slightly. The word "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device.
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Accessories
Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to regulate the steam pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a protection by setting the top limit of steam pressure, the working pressuretrol, which controls when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, as well as for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the amount of fire.
Protection valve: It is utilized to relieve pressure and stop possible explosion of the boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the amount of fluid in the boiler, also called a view cup, water gauge or water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They offer a way for removing solid particulates that condense and lie on underneath of the boiler. As the name implies, this valve is situated directly on the bottom of the boiler usually, and is occasionally opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out.
Continuous blowdown valve: This enables a small quantity of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to avoid water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be carried over with the vapor - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a tank. Most commonly entirely on a water boiler.
Flash container: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where in fact the steam can 'flash' safely and be found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only when make-up water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash container is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the temperature of the make-up water.
Hand openings: They may be metal plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installation of tubes and inspection of inner surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, some display, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is used to turn from the burner or shut off gasoline to the boiler to avoid it from jogging once the drinking water runs below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.
Surface blowdown series: It provides a means for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible chemicals that have a tendency to float together with the water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It is made to circulate water back again to the boiler after they have expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater collection. This may be installed to the side of the boiler, below the water level just, or to the very best of the boiler.[10 -
Top feed: With this design for feedwater injection, water is fed to the top of the boiler. This may reduce boiler fatigue caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays the water is quickly warmed and this can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater tubes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of tubes in water drum or the vapor drum made to cool superheated steam, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that does not need, or may be damaged by, dry out steam.
Chemical substance injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main steam stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main steam stop/check valve: It is used on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Gasoline oil system:gasoline oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment:
Name dish:
Registration dish:

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